最新医学博士英语真题及答案

 时间:2019-11-29 19:13:13 贡献者:姜牧之

导读:精品文档2010 医学博士英语统一入学考试试卷Paper One Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (30%)Section A Directions: In this section you will hear fifteen short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, you will

2015年全国医学博士英语真题试卷及答案解析
2015年全国医学博士英语真题试卷及答案解析

精品文档2010 医学博士英语统一入学考试试卷Paper One Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (30%)Section A Directions: In this section you will hear fifteen short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, you will hear a question about what is said. The question will be read only once. After you hear the question, read the four possible answers marked A, B, C and D, Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.Listen to the following example.You will hear:Woman: I feel faint.Man:No wonder. You haven't had a bite all day.Question: What's the matter with the woman?You will read:A. She is sick.B. She was bitten by an ant.C. She is hungry.D. She spilled her paint.Here C is the right answer.Sample AnswerAB CDNow let's begin with question Number 1.1. A. She's looking for a girl.B. She needs a new purse.C. She's going to give a birthday party.D. She wants to go shopping with her mom.2. A. She bears noises in her ears day and night.B. She has been overworking for a long time.C. Her right ear, hurt in an accident, is troubling her.D. Her ear rings are giving her trouble day and night.3. A. He'll go to see Mr. White at 10:30.B. He'd like to make an earlier appointmentC. He'd like to cancel the appointment.D. He'd like to see another dentist.4. A. 8:00B. 8:15C. 8:40D. 8:455. A. In a hotel.B. At a fast food bar.C. In the supermarket.D. In the department store.6. A. To resign right away.B. To work one more day as chairman.C. To think twice before he makes the decision.D. To receive further training upon his resignation.7. A. She didn't do anything in particular.精品文档

精品文档 B. She send a wounded person to the ER.精品文档

精品文档C. She had to work in the ER.D. She went t skiing.8. A. A customs officer.B. The man's mother.C. A school headmaster.D. An immigration officer.9. A. It feels as if the room is going around.B. It feels like a kind of unsteadinessC. It feels as if she is falling down.D. It feels as if she is goingaround.10. A. John has hidden something in the tree.B. John himself should be blamedC. John has a dog that barks a lot.D. John is unlucky.11. A. The chemistry homework is difficult,B. The chemistry homework is fun.C. The math homework is difficult.D. The math homework is fun.I2. A. His backache.B. His broken leg,C. His skin problem.D. His eye condition.13. A. Whooping cough, smallpox and measles.B. Whooping cough, chickenpox and measles.C. Whooping cough, smallpox and German measles. D.Whooping cough, chickenpox and German measles14. A. Saturday morning,B. Saturday night.C. Sunday afternoon.D. Next weekend.15. A. He's lost his notebook.B. His handwriting is messy.C. He'll miss class later this week.D. He cannot make it for his appointment.Section B Direction: In this section you will hear one conversation and two passages, after each of which, you will hear five questions. After each question, read the four possible answers marked A, B, C and D, Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.Conversation16. A. He is having a physical checkup.B. He has just undergone an operation. C.He has just recovered from an illness.D. He will be discharged from the hospital this afternoon.17. A. He got an infection in the lungs.B. He had his gallbladder inflamed.C. He was suffering from influenza.D. He had developed a big kidney stone.18. A. A lot better.B. Terribly awful.C. Couldn't be better.D. Okay, but a bit weak.精品文档

精品文档19. A. To be confined to a wheelchair.B. To stay indoors for a complete recovery.C. To stay in bed and drink a lot of water.D. To move about and enjoy the sunshine.20. A. From 4 pm to 6 pm.B. From 5 pm to 7 pm.C. From 6 pm to 8 pm.D. From 7 pm to 9 pm.Passage One21. A. The link between weight loss and sleep deprivation.B. The link between weight gain and sleep deprivation.C. The link between weight loss and physical exercise.D. The link between weight gain and physical exercise.22. A. More than 68,000.B. More than 60,800.C. More than 60,080,D. More than 60,008.23. A. Seven-hour sleeper gained more weight over time than 5-hour ones.B. Five-hour sleepers gained mote weight over t/me than 7-hour ones.C. Short-sleepers were 15% more likely to become obese.D. Short-sleepers consume fewer calories than long sleepers:24. A. Overeating among the sleep-deprived.B. Little exercise among the sleep-deprived.C. Lower metabolic rate resulting from less sleep.D. Higher metabolic rate resulting from less sleep,25. A. Exercise every day.B. Take diet pills.C. Go on a diet.D. Sleep more.Passage Two26. A. She is too hard on me.B. She asks too many questions.C. She is always considerate of my feelings.D. She is the meanest mother in the neighborhood.27. A. A university instructorB. A teaching assistant.C. A Ph.D. student.D. A psychiatrist.28. A. They usually say no.B. They usually say yes.C. They usually wait and see.D. They usually refuse to say anything.29. A. They are overconfident.B. Their brains grow too fast.C. They are psychologically dependent. D. Their brains are still immature in some areas .30. A. Be easy on your teen.B. Try to be mean to your teen.C. Say no to your teen when necessary. D. Don't care about your teen's feelings.Part II. Vocabulary (10%)Section ADirections: In this section all the statements are incomplete, beneath each of which are four words or phrasesmarked A, B, C and D. Choose the word or phrase that can best complete the statement and mark the letter ofyour choice on the ANSWER SHEET.31. A number of black youths have complained of beingby the police.A. harassedB. distractedC. sentencedD. released32. He rapidly becamewith his own power in the team.A. irrigatedB. irradiatedC. inoculatedD. intoxicated精品文档

精品文档33. Throughout his political career he has always been in the.A. twilightB. spotlightC. streetlightD. torchlight34. Wethat diet is related to most types of cancer but we don't have definite proof.A. suspendB: superveneC. superviseD. suspect35. A patient who is dying of incurable cancer of the throat is in terrible pain, which can no longer besatisfactorily.A. alleviatedB. abolishedC. demolishedD. diminished36. The television station is supported byfrom foundations and other sources.A. donationsB. pensionsC. advertisementsD. accounts37. More legislation is needed to protect theproperly rights of the patent.A. integrative B. intellectual C. intelligentD, intelligible38. Officials are supposed tothemselves to the welfare and health of the general public.A. adaptB. confineC. commitD. assess39. You should stopyour condition and do something about it.A. drawing on B. touching onC. leaning onD. dwelling on40. The author of the book has shown his remarkably keeninto human nature.A. perspective B. dimensionC. insightD. reflectionSection BDirections: In this section each of the following statements has a word or. phrase underlined, beneath which arefour words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Choose the word or phrase which can best keep the meaning of theoriginal sentence if it is substituted for the underlined part. Then mark. the letter of your choice on the ANSWERSHEET,41. The chemical was found to be detrimental to human health.A. toxicB. immuneC. sensitiveD. allergic42. It will be a devastating blow for the patient, if the clinic closes.A. permanent B. desperateC. destructiveD. sudden43. He kept telling us about his operation in the most graphic detail.A. verifiableB. explicitC. preciseD. ambiguous44. The difficult case tested the ingenuity of even the most skillful physician.A. credibility B. commitment C; honestyD. talent45. He left immediately on the pretext that hah ad to catch a train.A. claimB. clueC. excuseD. circumstance46. The nurse was filled with remorse for not believing her.A. anguishB. regretC. apologyD. grief47. The doctor tried to find a tactful way of telling her the truth.A. delicateB. communicative C. skillfulD. considerate48. Whether a person likes a routine office job or not depends largely on temperament.A. disposition B. qualification C. temptationD. endorsement49. The doctor ruled out Friday's surgery for the patient's unexpected complications.A, confirmed B. facilitated C. postponedD. cancelled50. It is not easy to remain tranquil when events suddenly change your life.' A. cautiousB. motionless C: calmD. alertPart IlI Cloze (10%) Directions: In this section there is a passage with ten numbered blanks. For each blank, there are four choices marked A, B, C and D listed below the passage, Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the精品文档

精品文档ANSWER SHEET.Experts say about 1% of young women in the United States are almost starving themselves today. They aresuffering from a sickness called anorexia.These young women have an abnormal fear of getting fat. They 51 starve themselves so they weigh atleast 15% less than their normal weight.The National Institute of Mental Health says one 52 ten cases of anorexia leads to serious medicalproblems. These patients can die from heart failure or {he disease can lead young women to 53 themselves.For example, former gymnast Christy Henrich died at age 22. She weighed only 6l pounds.A person with anorexia first develop joint and muscle problems. There is a lack of iron in theblood. 54 the sickness progresses, a young woman's breathing, heartbeat,, and. blood pressure rates slowdown. The important substance calcium is 55 from the bones, sometimes causing bones to break.Sometimes the brain gets smaller, causing changes in 56 a person thinks and acts. Scientists say manypatients have further mental and emotional problems. They have 57 opinions about themselves. They feelhelpless. Their attempts to become extremely thin may 58 efforts to take control of their lives. They maysuffer from fearfulness or continued deep sadness. Called depression. They may become dependent on illegaldrugs. Some people also feel the need to continually repeat a(n) 59 . For example, they may repeatedly washtheir hands although their hands are clean.Anorexia is a serious eating 60 . lf it is not treated on time, it can be fatal.51. A, specifically B. purposelyC. particularlyD .passionately52. A. fromB. ofC. atD. in53. A. killB. starveC. abuseD. worsen54, A. WhenB. WhileC . AsD. Since55. A. lostB. derivedC. generatedD. synthesized56. A. whatB. whyC. howD. which57. A, goodB. highC. lowerD. poor58. A. representB. makeC. presentD. exert59. A. medication B. illusionC motionD. action :60. A. habitB. behaviorC. disorderD. patternPart IV. Reading Comprehension (30%) Directions: In this section there are six passages, each of which is followed by five questions. For each question there are four possible answers marked A, 13, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.Passage One Children should avoid using mobile phones for all but essential calls because of possible health effects onyoung brains. This is one of the expected conclusions of an official government report to be published this week. The report is expected to call for the mobile phone industry to refrain from promoting phone use by children, and start labeling phones with data on the amount of radiation they emitThe independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones, chaired by former government chief scientist William Stewart, has spent eight months reviewing existing scientific evidence on all aspects of the health effects of using mobile phones. Its report is believed to conclude that because we don't fully understand the nonthermal effects of radiation on human tissue, the government should adopt a precautionary approach, particularly in relation to children.There is currently no evidence that mobile phones harm users or people living near transmitter masts. But some studies show that cell-phones operating at radiation levels within current safety limits do have sort of精品文档

精品文档biological effect on the brain.John Tattersall, a researcher on the health effects of radiation at the Defense Evaluation andResearch Agency's site at Portan Down, agrees that it might be wise to limit phone use by children. "If you havea developing nervous system, it's known to be more susceptible to environmental insults," he says. "So if phonesdid prove to be hazardous -- which they haven't yet -- it would be sensible."In 1998, Tattersall showed that radiation levels similar to those emitted by mobile phones could alter signalsfrom brain cells in slices of rat brain. "What we've found is an effect, but we don't know if it's hazardous," hesays.Alan Preece of the University of Bristol, who found last year that microwaves increase reaction times in testsubjects, agreed that children's exposure would be greater. "There's a lot less tissue in the way, and the skull isthinner, so children's heads are considerably closer," he says.Stewart's report is likely to recommend that the current British safety standards on energy emissions fromcell-phones should be cut to the level recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing RadiationProtection, which is one-fifth of the current British limit. "The extra safety factor of five is somewhat arbitrary,"says Michael Clark of the National Radiological Protection Board. "But we accept that it's difficult for the UK tohave different standards from an international body."61. Just because it has not been confirmed yet whether mobile phone emissions can harm humantissue, according to the government report, it does not mean that.A. the government should prohibit children from using cell phonesB. we should put down the phone for the sake of safetyC. the industry can have a right to promote phone useD. children are safe using cell phones62. Tattersall argues that it is wise to refrain mobile phone use by children in term ofA. their neural developmentB. their ill-designed cell phonesC. the frequency of their irrational useD. their ignorance of its possible health effects63. On the issue in question, Preece.A. does not agree with TattersallB. tries to remove the obstacles in the wayC. asks for further investigationD. would stand by Stewart64. What is worrisome at present is that the UKA. is going to turn deaf ears to the voice of Stewart's planB. finds it difficult to cut the current safety standards on phone useC. maintains different standards on safety limit from the international onesD. does not even impose safety limit on the mobile phones' energy emissions65. Which of the following can be the best candidate for the title of the passage?A. Brain Wave.B. For Adults Only.C. Catch Them Young.D. The Answer in the Air.Passage TwoAdvances in cosmetics dentistry and plastic surgery have made it possible to correct facial birth defects,repair damaged teeth and tissue, and prevent or greatly delay the onset of tooth decay and gum disease. As aresult, more people smile more often and mom openly today than even in the past, and we can expect moresmiles in the future.精品文档

精品文档Evidence of the smile's ascent may be seen in famous paintings in museums and galleries throughout the world. The vast majority of prosperous bigwigs, voluptuous nudes, or middle-class family members in formal portraits and domestic scenes appear to have their mouths firmly closed. Soldiers in battle, children at play, beggars, old people, and especially villains (like the torturers inmartyrdom and crucifixion scenes) may have their mouths open; but their smiles are seldom attractive, and more often suggest strain or violence than joy.Smiles convey a wide range of meanings in different eras and cultures, says art historian Angus Trumble, currently curator of Yale University's Center for British Art, in his book A Brief History of the Smile. Compare, for instance, the varying impressions made by the shy dimples of Leonardo's Mona Lisa; the rosy-cheeked, mustachioed Laughing Cavalier of Frans Hals; and the "Smiley Face" logo perfected (though not invented) in 1963 by American graphic artist Harvey R. Ball.In some non-Western cultures, Trumble notes, even a warm, open smile does not necessarily indicate pleasure or agreement. It can simply be a polite mask to cover emotions considered too rude or shocking to be openly displayed.Subtle differences in muscle movement can convey enormous differences in emotion, from the tranquility of bronze Buddhas, to the erotic bliss of couples entwined in stone on Hindu temples, to the fierce smirk of a guardian demon at the entrance to a Chinese tomb.Trumble expects the impact of Western medicine and mass media to further increase the pressure on people to grin broadly and laugh openly in public. "Faint smiles are increasingly thought of in scientific and psychological circles as something that falls short of the 'true' smile," and .therefore suggest insincerity or lack of enthusiasm, he says.With tattooing, body piercing, and permanent cosmetics already well established as fashion trends, one can imagine tomorrow's beauty shops adding plastic surgeons and dentists to their staffs. These corner-store cosmeticians would offer style makeovers to reshape our lips, teeth, and jawlines to mimic the signature smile of one's favorite celebrity.What can you say to that except "Have a nice day"?66. Had it not been for cosmetic advances, as inferred from the passage,.A. people would not have been as happy as they are today .B. the rate of facial birth defects would not have declinedC. there would not have been many more open smilesD. we would not have seen smiling faces in public67. According to the passage, it seems that whether there is a smile et not in the portraits or pictures is decidedbyA. one's internal sense of the external worldB. one's identity or social positionC. one's times of existenceD. all of the above68. Trumble's study on smiles shows that.A. an open smile can serve as a cover-upB. the famous portraits radiate varying smilesC. even the human muscles can arouse varying emotionsD. smiles can represent misinterpretations of different eras and cultures69. What Trumble expects to see is.A. the increasing tendency of broad grins and open smiles in publicB. further impact of Western medicine upon non-Western culturesC. a wider range of meanings to be conveyed by smilesD. more of sincerity and enthusiasm in public精品文档

精品文档70. At the end of the passage, the author implicates.A. a fortune to come with cosmetic advancesB. an identical smile for everybodyC. future changes in life styleD. the future of smilesPassage ThreeAdolf Hitler survived an assassination attempt in 1944 with the help of penicillin made by theAllies, a microbiologist in the UK claims. If the Nazi leader had died from- bacterial infection of his manywounds, the Second World War might have been over a year earlier, saving millions of lives, says MiltonWainwright of the University of Sheffiel , a noted historian of microbiology.In a paper to be published soon in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Wainwright reveals first-handevidence that Hitler was treated with penicillin by his personal doctor, Thee Morrell, following an assassinationattempt in which a bomb in a suitcase exploded next to Hitler's desk, Hitler was badly hurt, fleeing the scenewith his hair and trousers on fire, a badly bleeding arm and countless wooden splinter wounds from the oak tablethat probably saved his life.Wainwright found confirmation that Morrell gave Hitler antibiotics as a precaution in a recenttranslation of Morrell's own diary .I happened to be reading it for interest when the word penicillinjumped out at me," he says. He then set about trying to establish where Morrell might have got thedrug. At the time, penicillin was available only to the Allies; German and Czechoslovakian: teams had triedwithout much success to make it, Wainwright says, but the small quantities that were available were weak andimpure. "It's generally accepted that it was no good," says Wainwright.He reasons that Morrell would only have risked giving Hitler penicillin to prevent infectious if he wereconfident that the antibiotic would cure, not kill the German premier. "My research shows that Morrell, in a verydodgy position as Hitler's doctor, would only have used pure stuff." And the only reliable penicillin was thatmade by the Allies. So where did Morrell get it?Wainwright's investigations revealed that Allied airmen carried penicillin, so the Germans may haveconfiscated some from prisoners of war. The other more likely source is from neutral countries such as Spain,which received penicillin from Allied countries for humanitarian purposes, perhaps for treating sick children."I have proof the Allies were sending it to these countries," says Wainwright. 'I'm saying thiswould have got through in diplomatic bags, reaching Hitler's doctor and the higher echelons of the Nazi party. Sothis was almost certainly pure, Allied penicillin.""We can never be certain it saved Hitler's life," says Wainwright. But he notes that one of Hitler's henchmen,Reinhard Heydrich, otherwise known as the "Butcher of Prague died from blood poisoning after surviving acar-bomb assassination attempt. "Hair from his seat went into his wounds and gave him septicaemia," saysWainwright. Morrell may have been anxious to ensure that Hitler avoided the same fate.71. According to Wainwright, Adolf Hitler.A. might have used biological weapons in the warB. could not have committed suicide as confirmedC. could have died of bacterial infectionD. might have survived a bacterial plague72. Following his assassination in 1944, Adolf HitlerA. began to exercise precautions against his personal attacksB. was anxious to have penicillin developed in his countryC. received an injection of penicillin for blood poisoningD. was suspected of being likely to get infected73. As Wainwright reasons, Hitler's personal doctorA. cannot have dared to prescribe German-made penicillin to him精品文档

精品文档B. need not have used pure antibiotic for his suspect infection C. would have had every reason to assassinate him D. must have tried to produce penicillin 74. Wainwright implies that the Third Reich A. met the fate of collapse as expected B. butchered millions of lives on the earth C. was severely struck by bacterial plagues D. did have channels to obtain penicillin 75. Which of the following can be the best title for the passage? A. How Hitler Manage to Survive Assassination Attempts? B. Morrel Loyal to His German Premier? C. Hitler Saved by Allied Drugs? D. Penicillin Abused in German? Passage Four Get ready for a new kind of machine at your local gym: one that doesn't involve huffing and puffing as you burn off calories, Instead, all you have to do is stand still for 30 seconds while the machine measures your body fat. It could then tell you exactly where you could do with losing a few pounds and even advise you on exercises for your problem areas. If the body fat scanner turns out to be accurate enough, its makers hope it could one day help doctors spot disease. The scanner works by simultaneously building up an accurate 3D image of the body, while measuring the body's effect on an electromagnetic field. Combining the two measurements allows the researchers to work out the distribution of fat and water within. Neither method is new on its own, says Henri Tapp, at the Institute of Food Research in Norwich in the UK. "The smart thing is that we've put them in one machine." And it is not just for gym users. The body fat scanner could be used to study fat deposition as children develop, while patients remover from injury, or during pregnancy, And since it uses radio waves rather than X-rays, Tapp's device is safe to use repeatedly. Body shape is known to be a risk indicator for heart disease and diabetes. So accurately quantifying fat distribution could help doctors suggest preventive measures to patients before problems arise. At the moment, doctors estimate fat content from knowing body volume and water content. To a good approximation, says Tapp, anything that is not fat is water. The amount of water in the body is often measured by giving the subject a drink of water that contains a radioactive tracer. The level of tracer in the patient's urine after three hours reveals the total water volume. To find out a body's volume, subjects are weighed while totally submerged in water, and this is subtracted from their normal weight to give the weight of water displaced, and hence the subject's volume. But it is scarcely practical for seriously ill people. There are other ways to directly measure body fat, such as passing a minuscule current between the wrists and feet. The overall fat content can then be estimated from the body's resistance. But this method does not take body shape into account -- so a subject with particularly skinny legs might register a higher fat content than the true value. That is because skinny legs -- with a lower cross-sectional area -- will present higher resistance to current. So the machine thinks the water content of the body is lower -- rating the subject as fatter. Also, the system can only give an overall measurement of fat. Tapp's method uses similar calculations, but is more sophisticated because it tells you where you are piling on the pounds. 76. The new machine is designedA. to picture the body's hidden fat B. to identify those at risk for obesity C. to help clinically treat specific cases 精品文档

精品文档D. to measure accurately risky obesity-related effects 77. The beauty of the device, according to Tapp, is thatA. it performs a dual function B. it is of great accuracy in measurement C. it has significant implications in clinical practice D. it contributes to the evolution of human anatomy 78. Which of the following, according to the passage, does the machine have the potential to spare? A. A minuscule current. B. A radioactive tracer. C, A water tank. D. All of the above. 79. In comparison with the techniques mentioned in the passage, the body fat scanner A. quickens the pace of the patient's rehabilitation B. is highly appreciated for its safety C. features its measuring precision D. is easy to operate in the clinic 80. For scanning, all the subject has to do is A. take up a form of workout in the gym B. mm round the body fat scanner C. lie on the electromagnetic field D. stand in the system Passage Five There is currently abroad a new wave of appreciation for breadth of knowledge. Curricula at universities and colleges and programs in federal agencies extol the virtues of a broad education. For scientists who work in specialized jobs, it is a pleasure to escape in our spare time to read broadly in fields distant from our own. Some of us have made interdisciplinary study our occupation, which is no surprise, because much of the intellectual action in our society today lies at the interfaces between traditional disciplines. Environmental science is a good example, because it frequently requires us to be conversant in several different sciences and even some unscientific fields. Experiencing this breadth of knowledge is stimulating, but so is delving deeply into a subject. Both are wonderful experiences that are complementary practical and aesthetic ways. They are like viewing the marvelous sculpture of knowledge in two different ways. Look at the sculpture from one perspective and you see the piece in its entirety, how its components connect to give it form, balance, and symmetry. From another viewpoint yon see its detail, depth, and mass. There is no need to choose between these two perspectives in art. To do so would subtract from the totality of the figure. So it is with science, Sometimes we gaze through a subject and are reluctant to stop for too much detail. As chemists, we are fascinated by computer sciences or molecular genetics, but not enough to become an expert. Or we may be interested in an analytical technique but not enough to stay at its cutting edge. At other times, we become immersed in the detail of a subject and see its beauty in an entirely different way than when we browse. It is as if we penetrate the surface of the sculpture and pass through the crystal structure to the molecular level where the code for the entire structure is revealed. Unfortunately, in our zeal for breadth or depth, we often feel that it is necessary to diminish the value of the other. Specialists are sometimes ridiculed with names such as "nerd" or "technocrats", generalists are often criticized for being too "soft" or knowing too little about any one thing. Both are ludicrous accusations that deny a part of the reality of environmental science. Let us not be divided by our passion for depth or breadth. The beauty that awaits us on either route is too precious to stifle, too wonderful to diminish by bickering. 81. From a broad education to interdisciplinary study, we can see精品文档

精品文档A. the integration of theory with practice B. the enthusiasm for breadth of knowledge C. the rapid division of traditional disciplines D. the contradiction between specialists and generalists 82. The commentator would say that the totality of the sculpture of knowledge A. is mainly composed of two elements B. presents two different points of view C. cannot be perceived from one perspective D. is a whole made up of complementary elements 83. Just because we became engrossed in the detail of a subject, according to the comment, it does not mean that we A. can have an understanding of it B. will develop into an expert C. will-perceive its entirety D. are interested in it 84. It is the commentator's contention that neither specialists nor generalistsA. have zeal for the totality of the knowledge sculpture B. represent the depth and breadth of knowledge C. are necessarily supposed to belittle the other D. can be qualified as environmental scientists 85. Which of the following can be the best title for the comment?. A. Interdisciplinary Study as Our Occupation B. Breadth and Depth of Knowledge C. The Ways of Doing Science D. The Beauty of Science Passage Six That shabby unknown bundle of neglect and despair that was dropped off by the police six weeks ago -later to be identified by his mother, who turns up occasionally -- is now a driving force on the infants' ward. Once he was bathed a few times and his rashes were treated, he mined out to be a 14-month-old boy named Vergil, still recovering from premature birth J birth weight, 21/2 pounds. It came obvious he had never received any real attention, and practically no solid food, and it was never very clear who assumed responsibility for him in his family, if anyone. Miraculously he survived, with almost no outside help. At first he just lay there, withdrawn, sucking on an empty bottle as he had been used to doing at home. After a few days it became clear he was ravenously hungry and he downed bottle after bottle of milk. Slowly he began to respond to the ward staff around him who hung over the side of his crib, tempting him back to life. He started by cautiously "chewing" on people, shitting and tasting them warily like a little wild creature. Gradually he climbed to a standing position, pulling himself up on the bars of his crib. Then he began to discover noise J that came from himself. When he learned that it was acceptable, in this place, to scream when engaged, he filled his comer of the room with garbled speech-like sounds, and loud baby-bellows of demand. If nobody responded he would fix each passerby with a coy look that evolved into a seductive grin, revealing four widely spaced little teeth. Someone always stopped, grinning back at this adorable creature, then picking him up and cuddling him. We on the staff took personal pride and delight in his steady progress. During the day we moved his crib from infants' ward to the playroom where there are people coming and going. He loved it, standing and cruising in his crib, commenting happily on the scene, crowing and babbling. One afternoon, when his crib was moved adjacent to the wall, he became unusually quiet, deep in concentration. With the stealth of a cat, using his little fingers like tiny screwdrivers, he had taken apart the wall oxygen unit. Our delight in his progress turned out to real respect. Perhaps we could steer him toward the right path before it精品文档

精品文档was too late. Vergil definitely had a future.86. In the infants' ward, VergilA. was treated as an orphanB. was born prematurelyC. had himself renamedD. drove the staff busy87. The ward staff must have been marveled at Vergil'sA. vitalityB. shabbinessC. premature birthD. physical well-being88. How did Vergil begin to respond to people?A. By making loud haby-bellows of demand.B. By fixing each passerby with a coy look.C. By sniffing and tasting them.D. By yelling at them.89. From the observation made by the physician in the clinic, we can say that VergilA. was appreciative of the ward staffB, was growing in a favorable environmentC. was growing faster in mind than in bodyD. was proud of his physical and mental growth90. Through the mention of Vergirs improper act, the writer is trying to implyA. the existence of dangers in the infants' wardB. the importance of guidance on babies' growthC. the acceptance of inborn mischiefD. the existence of a future for himPaper TwoPart V. Writing (20%)Directions: In 'this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully and then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the essay.新兴学科:药物心理学(Pharmacopsychology) 药物作用于人体的病变部位,而病人的心理作用会或多或少地影响药物的作用。

为了使药物治疗达 到最佳疗效,人们必须研究药物心理学,讲究服药心理。

现代医药学认为:药物大多能产生两种效应。

药物通过其药理作用来达到治病的目的,此为药物的 生理作用。

药物还可通过其非生理作用,在病人的心理上产生良好的感觉,加速疾病的康复,此为药物 的心理效应。

药物的心理效应可促使药物取得更好的疗效,为治疗奠定良好的基础。

药物的心理效应是指由医生的威信,病人对药物的信任感,接受药物治疗的体验、评价,治疗时外 界的暗示及药物的广告效应等心理共同作用而产生的综合效应。

药物心理学正是建立在药物心理效应基 础之上的一门新兴边缘学科。

众所周知,用同样的药物,由专家、名医开出的则效果会更好,这就是药 物心理学最简单而明显的例子。

有人做了一个形象的比喻:药物是治疗疾病的“种子”,而心理状态是种子鞍以生长、开花和结果的 “土壤”。

药物的药理作用是药物治疗疾病的基础,而药物的心理效应则在疾病治疗过程中起着十分微妙 的作用。

特别是在治疗心因性疾病和心理精神疾病中,良好的心态显得更为重要。

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精品文档与服药心理关系最密切的是药物的信誉。

原因为:虔诚的信念和愉快的心情能影响人体的生理机能, 增加肾上腺皮质激素的分泌;而适量的肾上腺素能耐受 200—枷倍致死量的细菌内毒素。

药物的良好信誉, 能树立人对药物治病救人的坚定信念。

为什么不良心态会降低药物的生理效应呢?人体是—叶复杂的有机整体,不良心态会影响内分泌、心 脑血管系统等的功能,从而减弱人体的抗病能力,体内病菌就乘机,繁衍滋生,药效当然就降低了。

积 极的服药心理,可激活内分泌和潜在的免疫功能,药物在免疫器官分泌抗体增多时,能发挥最佳疗效。

药物心理学对人体的作用,在某些人中表现尤为明显:特别是有神经质、意志薄弱、心理缺陷和易 受暗示的人。

药物心理学揭示了安慰剂止痛和心理安慰的奥秘:安慰剂可通过心理暗示作用刺激大脑产 生内源性脑啡肽,其结构类似天然吗啡,作用于疼痛部位,从而减轻疼痛。

许多人有以自觉症状为主的慢性病。

许多慢性病有明显的自觉症状,如恶心呕吐、头晕目眩、失眠 多梦、食欲不振、腹胀和隐痛等,这些症状与心理和精神状态密切相关。

而药物的心理作用正是通过心 理暗示来调整人的心态,在不知不觉中治愈或缓解了原有的慢性病。

医护人员的语言、举止和行为对病人的用药心理影响很大。

目前世界各国对癌症、类风湿性疾病和 自身免疫病等尚无特效药。

但医生绝不可对患者说: “此病为绝症,无药可治。

”如对症适时选用安慰 剂,有时会收到真正特效药所没有的神奇作用,至少可解除病人精神上的痛苦,在心灵上得到安慰和鼓 励,从而增强战胜疾病的信心。

药物心理学的重要组成部分是暗示疗法和安慰剂。

安慰剂通过心理暗示作用而影响病人的心理状态, 进而影响机体的生理功能,从而起到积极的治疗作用。

现代医学证明:药物心理效应不但具有心理上的 安慰作用.而且还有改变器官功能活动和躯体症状的多种作用,故可用于治疗某类躯体疾病及多种心理 疾病。

2010 医学博士英语统一入学考试试题答案 Paper OnePart I. Listening Comprehension: 1.A 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. C 8. D 9. D 10. B11. A 12. C 13. B 14. D 15. C 16. B 17. B 18. D 19. D 20. C 21. B 22. A 23. A 24. C 25. D 26. C 27. A 28. B 29. D 30. C Part II. Vocabulary 31. A 32. D 33. B 34. D 35. A 36. A 37. B 38. C 39. D 40. C 41.A 42. C 43. B 44. D 45. C 46. B 47. D .-48. A 49. D 50. C Part III. Cloze 51. B 52. D 53. A 54. C 55. A 56. C 57. D 58. A 59. D 60. C Part IV. Reading Comprehension 61. D 62. A 63. D 64. C 65. D 66. C 67. B 68. A 69. D 70. C 71. C 72. D 73. A 74. B 75. C 76. A 77. A 78. D 79. C 80. D 81. B 82. C 83. C 84. C 85. B 86. A 87. A 88. C 89. C 90. BPaper Two Writing Sample (190 words)Pharmacopsychology Pharmacopsychology is a newly developed interdisciplinary subject which is based on the studies on the psychological effects of drugs. Drugs have effects to lesions in the human body while the psychological conditions might more or less affect the effects of the drugs. According to modem pharmacology, drugs can produce two effects, that is, physical and psychological effects. On the one hand, drugs work through their pharmaceutical effects; on the other hand, they bring about good feelings and speed up recovery through other non-pharmaceutical effects. And the psychological effects of drugs can enhance their medical effects. Psychological effects of drugs indicate the general effects caused by doctor's authority, patients' trust in drugs, patients' experience and evaluation of drugs, hinting from families and friends, and advertisement effects. 精品文档

精品文档 The main elements of pharmacopsychology are hinting and placebo which may play a positive role inpatients' recovery for they may influence patients' mental activities through hinting, and further influence the physiological functions of the body. For example, drugs orders! by experts or famous physicians may have better effects; placebo relieves the patient's pain; and language, gestures and behaviors of medical staff may cause changes in the patient's emotions.Transcript of Listening Comprehension Section A Directions: In this section you will hear fifteen short conversations between two speakers. At the end of each conversation, you will hear a question about what is said. The question will be read only once. After you hear the question, read the four possible answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET.I. M: You said that you wanted to go shopping this evening. What do you want to get? W: I think I Want to get my mom a new purse for her birthday.' Q: What does the woman mean?2. W: My ears are always ringing. Day and night I can't sleep. M: Which is your bad ear? W: My right ear hurts. Q: Why does the woman have trouble sleeping?3. M: My tooth is bothering me. When can I see Dr. White? W: How about tomorrow? Is 10:30 OK? M: Isn't there anything earlier?. W: No. but I will call you if there is a cancellation before then. Q: What does the man mean?4. W: Are we going to be late? M: We will be unless we hurry.W: When does the show start? M: At 8:30. We've got 15 minutes to get there. Q: What time is it now?5. M: I can't find the instant soup. W: Did you look next to the canned soup? M: I looked there. But there isn't anything on the shelf. W: Why don't you try the spice section? It ought to be there. Q: Where does the conversation probably take place?6. M: I've a headache. I am resigning from the job of chairman right now. I can't stand it another day. W: Do you really mean that you want to quit? M: Well, maybe, I'll give it a second thought. Q: What is the man going to do?7. W: Did you do anything over the weekend? M: Not much. What did you do? W: I had planned to go skiing. But I wound up working in the ER. Q: What did the woman do over the weekend?8. W: We understand that you are not attending school. M: I've been attending, but, I've been sick recently. W: You've attended only three days since last July. M: Three days? No. it's been mom than that. W: We are going to have to take away your visa.精品文档

精品文档 Q: What is the woman?精品文档

精品文档9. M: Does the dizziness feel like spinning or is it just a kind of unsteadiness? W: It feels like spinning. M: How would you describe it? Is it as if the room is going around or do you feel as if it is you that is going around? W: I feel the latter. Q: How does the woman describe her dizziness?10. W: Did you know that John failed in the math exam? M: Yes. And he blamed it on bad luck. But I really think he is barking up the wrong tree. Q: What docs the man imply?11. M: Catherine, how is the math homework coming? W: That's a piece of cake. But the chemistry homework is really a hard nut to crack. Q: What does the woman mean?12. W: What's the problem? M: I've had an itching rash on my body, and arms and legs for the last two months. W: Can you describe it? M: It's pink with red oval spots. Q: What has brought the man here?13. M: I'd like to ask you about your past medical history. Can you tell me if you had any childhood diseases?W: When I was small, I had measles, chickenpox and whooping cough. But I don't think I ever had German measles.Q: What diseases did the woman have when she was small? 14. W: If you go to the football game on Saturday night and concur or play on Sunday, you won't havemuch time to study. M: Oh, well, I can do that the weekend after this one. Q: When does the man plan to study? 15. M: I need to he absent from class on Friday morning because I have a doctor's appointment. And I needto borrow someone's notes. W: Well, you can certainly borrow mine, if you don't mind my messy handwriting. Q: What is the man's problem? Section B Directions: In this section you will hear one conversation and two passages, after each of which, you will hear five questions. After each question, read the four possible answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best answer and mark the letter of your choice on the ANSWER SHEET. Conversation W: Hello M: Hello. W: So, did you have a comfortable night? M: No, not really. W: Sorry to hear that. And how are you feeling at the moment? M: A bit better. W: You don't feel sick at ail? M: No, I'm okay. W: That's good. Are you having sips of water. M: No. W: Would you like some? M: Well, I don't really feel like. 精品文档

精品文档W: Ah, you can't drink anything at the moment. M: The nurses have been giving me mouth washes. W: Yes, I think you will begin to pick up as the day goes on. And we'll carry on giving you something to easethe discomfort. Does it hurt much? M: Well, it does when I move about. W: Right, but the sooner we have you on the move, the quicker you'll start to heal. So, we'll have you sitting inthe chair this afternoon. Enjoy the sunshine. M: OK, I can't say that I am really looking forward to that. W: Mm, you have a pretty big gall stone,, the gallbladder is quite inflamed. There was a lot ofinfection around it and inside it. Well it's out now. So no need to worry about it. It won't cause you any more trouble. M: Mm. W: Any more questions? Or anything we can do for you? M: No, I think I'm okay. I'm feeling a bit weak at the moment. Oh, when will my wife be able tocome and see me? The nurses told me before, but I can't remember. W: The visiting hours are from 6 to 8 in the evening. M:Okay, thank you. She'll be here tonight in that case. W: Fine, well, I'll be stopping to see you tomorrow. M: Thank you. Questions: 16. What is true about the man in the conversation? 17. What was wrong with the man? 18. How is the man feeling now? 19. What is the man supposed to do according to the doctor's orders? 20. What are the hospital's visiting hours? Passage OneHere's a dreamy weight-loss plan: take a nap. That's the message from work by Sanjay Patel at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio. His study of more than 68,000 women has found that those who sleep less than 5 hours a night gain more weight over time than those who sleep 7 hours a night.Controlling for other differences between the groups, Patel found that women who sleep 5 hours or less gained 0.7 kilograms more on average over 10 years than 7-hour sleepers. The short-sleeping group was also 32 per cent more likely to have gained 15 kilograms or more, and 15 per cent more likely to have become obese.Significantly, the short-sleepers consumed fewer calories than those who slept ? hours, says Patel, who presented his results this week at the American Thoracic Society International Conference in San Diego, California. This finding overturns the common view that overeating among the sleep-deprived explains such weight differences.Lower metabolic rate resulting from less sleep may he the reason behind the weight gain, Patel suggests. "It obviously also suggests that getting people to sleep more might he a relatively easy way to help people lose weight,” he says. Questions: 21. What did Patel's study indicate? 22. How many subjects did Patel have in his study? 23. According to Patel's study, which of the following is not tree? 24. According to patel, what might be the reasons behind the weight differences7 25. What suggestion would Patel give to those who want to lose weight? Passage TwoI am the meanest mother in the neighborhood. I'm too strict. I ask too many questions. No one else's parents精品文档

精品文档are as different as I am, Don't I know that all the cool kids are out until 2:00 or 3:00 in the morning and can go wherever they want? This is the point of view of my 16-year-old daughter. Although she is frequently annoyed when I try to gather what I consider basic information – about where she's going, who's driving, and what the plan is for getting home — I know she is also relieved that someone is watching out for her. Discipline-or, to use today's more popular phrase, setting limits takes on a whole new meaning when your child hits adolescence. "When kids are young and do something unsafe, parents have no trouble saying no," says Daniel Kindlon, Ph.D., assistant professor of child psychology at the Harvard School of Public Health, who bas two daughters, 15 and 12. "You don't care that your two-year-old cries if you don't let him put the fork in the toaster. But saying yes to your teen can almost become a reflex, because you so desperately want to avoid conflict." New research confirms what parents have known all along: Adolescents simply lack the ability to make smart decisions consistently. For example, peer relationships -- which are so important to teenagers can easily overwhelm the need to be safe. Scientists have discovered that this has to do with the way the human brain grows. During the teen years, the brain develops rapidly, but some areas mature much earlier than others. But you have to hold the line. Your teen is secretly counting on you to do so. And too much is at stake if you don't. Question s: 26. What would the speaker's daughter least likely say about her mother?. 27. What does Daniel Kindlon do? 28. According to Kindlon, how do parents usually respond to their teen's requests? 29. Why are adolescents unable to make smart decisions consistently according to scientists? 30, What would the speaker advice parents to do?精品文档

 
 

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