2002 patr II vocabulary 31.An enormous number of people in the world’s poorest countries do not have clean water or adequate sanitation____ A. capacities B. facilities C. authorities D. warranties 32.Family-planing clinics give out ___advices to people who have decided to limit the size of their families. A..insensitive B.interrogative C.contraceptive D.communicative 33.Caffeine is the ___drug that will just about get you out of the door on time to catch the bus. A.miracle B.myth n. C.trick D.legend 34.Today investigators are still far from ___ a master map 原图 of the vasculature of the heart. A.constituting B.decoding C.drafting D.encoding 35.I have never seen a more caring, ___ group of piople in my life. A.emotional B.impersonal C.compulsory D.compassionate 36.By the time I reached my residency, I ___ treated the patient as a whole human being. A.yearned for B.broke into C.pass for D.made for. 37.We now obtain more than two-thirds protein from animal resources, while our grandparents ___only one-half from animal resources. A.originated B.digested C.deprived D.derived 38.Obesity carries an increased risk of ____. A.mortality B. mobility C.longevity D.maternity 39.The best exercise should require continuous ___ , rather than frequent stops and starts. A.compassion
B.acceleration C.frustration D.exertionn. 40.Environmental officials insist that something be done to ___ acid rain. A.curb B.sue C.detoxify D.condemn 41.It would be wildly optimistic to believe that these advances offset such a large reduction in farmland . A.take in B.make up C.cut down D.bring about 42.To begin with ,it is impossible to come up with a satisfactory definition of what constitutes happy and unhappy marriage. A.explain B.oppose C.represent D.propose 43.Politicians often use emotional rather than rational arguments to win the support for their actions and ideas. A.applicable B.favorable C.sensitive D.reasonable 44.Tests are one way for a teacher to assess how much a student has learned. A.observe B.appraise C.appreciate D.induce 45.Through live television, the world is now able to witness historical events as they happen. A.reserve B.confirm C.perceive D.transmit 46.Most experts say that the new tax plan will have a negligible effect on the country’s economic problems. A.indefinite B.indispensable C.infinite D.insignificant 47.I don’t know how you could have left out the most important fact of all. A.omitted B.fabricated C.pinpointed D.embraced 48.Family and cultural beliefs and norms are important predictors of health-seeking behavior. A.formulations B.standards C.principlesn. D.notions 49.There must be a systematic approach to retrieving notes and analyzing them.
A.regain B.relieving C.reversing D.rectifying 50.To study the distribution of disease within an area, it is useful to plot the case on a map. A.mark B.allocate C.erase D.pose part III close (10%) You feel generally depressed and unable to concentrate. Your pattern of daily 51 may change: you find yourself52 and active at night; you sleep late into the day, when most others are working .You stay in your room and have little contact with people 53 with those who speak your language .In your mind, you criticize the piople around you ----they are rude, loud, unfriendly, uninformed, concerned with insignificant things, 54 stupid; you complain about them to any friends you have. You became55 when you can’t go into a restaurant and order the type of food you realy like; you get angry when the TV news contains mostly U.S news and very little about events that are important to you. You are constantly making comparison between life here and the perfect life 56 home.Above all, you are homesick almost all the time. If you ever find yourself behaving in ways 57 these, you are brobably suffering culture shock. Culture shock is a psychological 58 that sometimes has physical effects.It affects piople who have moved away from an invironment where they know how to live 59 a new environment where much is unfamiliar to them---the food, the weather, the language, and especially the 60 rules for social behavior that few people are consciously aware of . 51.A. way B.pattern C. method D.track 52.A.sleepy B.happy C.awake D.sad 53.A.for B.lest C.besides D.except 54.A.even B.merely C.indeed D.rather 55.A.offended B.uninterested C.frustrated D.isolated 56.A.here B.there C.back D.away 57.A.the same as B.different from C. similar to D.familiar with 58.A.situation B.condition C.reflection D.position 59.A.in B.at C.within D.into 60.A.unwritten B.written C.spoken D.secrete passage one Science is the 4-year pursuit of knowledge that every high school teenager must live through. I often ask myself, when will I ever need to use this stuff when I grow up? The answer is clearly , probably never. I doubt that I will ever need to know the chemical formula of dichromate, or how to correctly identify a combustion reaction. However,where would we be today, whithout science? Without the great minds of Einstein and Newton, where would we be? How would I be able to writer this essay on the computer ,if there was no science? Would I be alive today? Would humankind survive through the year snd still be around today? Or dogs be the masters of humans? Would we be still the dominant species on the
Earth? So many questions arise because the human race depends on the advancement of science. We are dependent on Nabisco to make that cookie you love, 99.99% fat free, that video game company to come out with the anniversary game cartridge you want to play so badly , and that car company to alter the headlights of the car and call it the “new” 98 car. where would we be whithout science? We depend on our researchers to make new vaccines and doctors to make us the way we want to be.We depend on them to make us “prettier”,to perform triple bypass, to make sure nothing goes wrong when they operate upon us. Doctors depend on science just as much as we depend on science. Lawyers are constantly depending on doctors not knowing their science so they can get rich quick. Just look how much our society depends on the advancement of science. Science, in a way , keeps our society from falling apart. In our society science is everywhere. Science takes part in our everyday life more than we think. We need science progress so that we can simply make it through a day. When most people think of science , they think of it as a laboratory ,white coats, and mixing all different-colored chemicals untill something blows up. But the fact is that science is a way of life and our future. 61.The author’s probable answer to the question where we would be today, without science is___ A.it hard to imagine B.we would nowhere to find C.let’s see what happens D.not every question has an answer in the world 62.From the cookie to the car,the author is trying to tell us that science____ A.would be nowhere without humans B.is picking up its developing pace C.raise so many present problems D.is shaping our world 63.The author impies that science____ A.is making doctors and lawyers the richest people in our society B.does not involve every profession C.needs us as much as we need it D.is benefiting everyone 64.The author seems to draw a conclusion that science____ A.does rather than it is B.is ubiquitous in our life C.does not exist in a laboratory D.is not appreciated in the publix 65.The author is most probably___ A.a student B.a socialist C.a professor of science D.a free-lance writer of science passage 2 Osteoporosis used to be called “the silent disease’’because its victims didn’t know they had it
until it was too late and they suffered a bone fracture. Today, doctors can identify osteoporosis early. Improved understanding of the disease has also led to new treatments and strategies for preventing the disease altogether. For post-menopausal woman, the most common medical response to osteoporosis is hormone replacement therapy. Boosting estrogen levels strengthens the entire skeleton and reduces the risk of hip fracture.Unfortunately ,it sometimes causes uterine bleeding and may increase the of breast cancer. To passby such side effects, researchers have developed several alternative treatments. Synthetic estrogens called Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators(SERMs) emulate estrogen with slight modifications.Another drug ,alendronate reduces spine, hip and wrist fractures by 50 percent. Researchers have even developed a nasal spray called calcitonin. Each of these alternatives has trade-offs ,however. Patients must talk with their doctors to decide which therapy is best for them. The ideal way to address osteoporosis is by adopting a healthy lifestyle. And the best to do this is in childhood, when most bone mass is accumulated.Because bodies continue building bone until about age thirty, some experts believe that women in their twenties can still increase their bone stength by as much as 20 percent. Calcium, which is available in low-fat dairy foods and dark green vegetables, is essential for preventing osteoporosis. So is Vitamin D , which aides calcium absorbtion. Vitamin D comes from sunlingt, but dietary supplements may be helpful in northern climates and among those who don’t get outside.The final component is regular moderate exercise because bone responds to the needs that body puts on it.These are the simple steps that can help make “the silent disease”truly silent. 66.Hormone replacement therapy for osteoporosis____ A.used to effective in post-manopausal woman B.is most frequently priscribed by doctors C.works perfectly on post-manopausal women D.is most likely to be avoided for its side effects. 67.The best treatment for osteoporosis , according to the passage.___ A.is Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators B.is chosen by the patient C.possesses no side effects D.is of individuality 68.To preventing osteoporosis, a healthy lifestyle should be adopted____ A.as early as childhood B.when one is in his twenties C.after bone mass accumulate stops D.as soon as osteoporosis is diagnosed. 69.By making “the silent disease” truly silent, the author means that the actions suggested____ A.can be the best therapy for osteoporosis B.can help eradicate osteoporosis C.can help prevent osteoporosis D.all of the above. 70.The author of this passage focuses on the____of osteoporosis
A.alternative treatments B.early diagnosis C.treatments and prevention D.resulting damages passage 3 If you are caught in a downpour, it is better to run for a shelter than walk, reaserchers in the US advise. This may sound obvious, but an earlier study in Britain suggested that you would get just as wet as walking. In 1995, Stephen Belcher of the University of Reading and his students calculated how much water falls on top of your head and how much you sweep up on your front as you move forward. Obviously, you would get wetest standing still, and less wet the faster you moved. But the Reading team found that the benefits of running faster than about 3 meters per second—which they described as a walking pace---were tiny. Thomas Peterson and Trevor Wallis ,meteorologists at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina, had a hunch that this was wrong.They realized that the Reading team had overestimated the average walking pace, so they reworked the calculations for a walking pace of 1.5metres per second and a running speed of 4 meters second. Peterson and Wallis conclude in the latest issue of weather that a walker would get 16 per cent wetter than a runner over a distance of 100 metres in drizzle. In heavy rain ,this would rise to 23 per cent.When the reseachers allowed for the way that runners tend to lean forward, sheltering the front of their bodies but increasing the rainfall on their backs, they found that a walker would get 36per cent wetter than a runner in heavy rain. Not content with theory alone, Peterson and Wallis decided to test their ideas. “If verification requires an ＄80million satellite, one may have to forgo verification,” says Peterson . “But if it involves a simple experiment, that’s another matter.” Peterson and Wallis are roughly the same size, Wearing identical clothing, one ran 100 metres in heavy rain and the other walked. They weighed their clothes before and after the experiment. This showed that the walker had absorbed 0.22kgs of water,while the runner had soaked up only 0.13 kgs. This is about 40 per cent less ,in line with the model’s predictions. Belcher says that his team’s work was a bit of fun, and that apart from the confusion over what a typical walking speed is ,their results were similar to those of Peterson and Wallis. “I’m delighted to see that their experiments gave results in qualitative agreement with the model,” says Belcher. But why not just take an umbrells? For anyone thinking of taking the easy way out, Wallis has a warning: “Running with an umbrella has a negative impact on your aerodynamics” 71.The reading team and the American meteorologists presented different results in investigating___ A.how far people can run per second in a downpour B.the benefits of running for shelter in a downpour C.whether people can run fast in a downpour D.the average walking pace in a downpour 72.According to the American researchers, the Reading team made an error in calculating___ A.the average walking pace B.the amount of rainfall C.the time and distance
D.the running speed 73.Which of the following, according to the American researchers, gets the least wet? A.Running in drizzle B.walking in drizzle C.Running in heavy rain D.walking in heavy rain 74.They verified their model predictions by experimenting___ A.on themselves B.with satellite C.on the twins of the same size D.with sophisticated calculating devices 75.The simila results ,according to Belcher ,refer to___ A.the amount of rain water absorbed B.the average running speed C.the average walking pace D.all of the above passage 4 Englisher speakers pick up pitch in the right hemisphere of their brains, but speakers of certain other languages perceive it on the left as well.It all depends on what you want to learn from pitch, Donald Wong of the Indians School of Medicine in Indianapolis told the meeting last week. Earlier studies have shown that when an English speaker hears pitch changes, the right prefrontal cortex leaps into action. This fits in with the idea that emotive nuances of language---which in English are often carried by the rise and fall of the voice----are perceived on the right. But in “tonal” languages like Thai, Mandarin and Swedish, Pitch not only carries emotional information,but can also alter the meaning of a word .Wong and his colleagues suspected that a speaker of tonal language would register pitch in the left side of the brain---in particular Broca’s area ,which processes the linguistic content of language. To test this , the team asked English speakers and Thai speakers to listen 80 pairs of Thai words, and tracked the blood flow in their brains using positron emission tomography.The volunteers had to decide whether the two words sounded the same, either by consonant or by tone ,In some cases, the words had on intelligible meaning. None of the words was emotionally charged, so even when Thai speakers could understand them, there was no right-side activation.But sure enough the Thai speakers could consistently lit up the left side of the brain, especially Broca’s area, while the English speakers did not. The researchers are now planing to repeat the experiment with Thai speakers using whole sentences, complete with emotional information. “Both hemispheres will be engaged,” predict Wong. 76.The reason why pitch is registered on the right hemisphere, according to the passage, is that __ A.belongs to the English language exclusively B.is an emotive nuance of language C.can be easily heard D.is a regular sound 77.When the emotion-free words were heard in the test____
A.were registered on the English speakers’ right hemisphere B.slowed down the blood flow in the volunteers’ brains C.activated the Thai speaker’s left hemispheres D.sounded the exactly the same to the volunteers 78.A tonal language____ A.possess no pitch B.carries pitch with dual functions C.is superior to the English language D.holds more linguestic content than English. 79.In Wong’s future expetiment ,the volunteers____ A.will use either their right or left hemispheres B.will use both English and a tonal language C.will listen to emotionally-charged sentences D.will listen to more pairs of emotionally-charged words 80.What is the passage mainly about? A.Two hemisphere to the sound of speech B.Two functions of pitch in language C. Two hemisphere of the human braim D.Two languages and two hemispheres Passage 5 We are all members of a culture. How we interpret the reality around us ,what we consider to be reasonable statements and behavior ,and what we believe to be health and illness all stem from the culture we share with some people and not with others. Those whose cultural experiences differ from our own will also differ in their belief and interpretions of reality. We are all rooted in an ethnic group as well, even if this group is simply the so-called “majority” of white, middle class, protestant heritage .The degree to which we identify with an ethnic past will vary according to the strength with which family tradition has maintained that identity,and to the degree that the family chooses to assimilate into the larger society. The extent of an individual’s or a family’s identification with an ethnic heritage is as important as the specific features of that heritage. American society is ethnically and culturally diverse, and community health nurse will find themselves practicing in communities that reflect this diversity.A particular family or a whole community may belong to an ethnic or cultural group very different from the nurse’s own. Those community nurses who are most sensitive to variations in clients’ beliefs and behaviors will be most effective in promoting their wellness. Community health nurses can achieve this sensitivity by examining their own culture in order to understand how it colors their world view and their interactions with individuals, families, and communities.Recognizing the clients individuals as well as members of a larger culture, nurses will reject stereotypical views of clients’ ethnic groups that can impede communication and diminish their effectiveness. Indeed, culture mediates all social encounters, including those between nurse and client ,and its study can enhance the effectiveness of health care services. 81．We live in the social enviroment ___ A.without different cultural experiences B.of the same behavior and belief
C.with a shared culture D.of the same race 82．The author is mainly talking about in the second paragraph___ A.assimilation into a large society B.identification with an ethnic heritage C.the conflict between identification and assimilation D.the contradiction between an ethnic group and the majority 83．According to the passage, a nurse cannot function well in a community___ A.that reflects ethical and cultural diversity B.without asimilating into its ethnic heritage C.that is sensitive to his /her beliefs and behaviors D.without recognizing its ethnical and cultural diversity 84．Community health nurses are supposed to ____ A.be sensitive to variations in clients’ beliefs and behaviors B.abandon the stereotypical views of clients’ groups C.examine their own culture D. all of the above 85．Which of the following can best summarize the general idea of the passage? A.identification with and assimilation into ethnic groups B.Novel and stereotypical views of ethnic groups C.Communicatio and community D.culture and health care. passage 6 I’m in the unusual position of being both a computer scientist and a professional musician. On the computer side, I’m best known for my work virtual reality, a term I coined in the early 1980’s , As a musician I write, perform,and record my own work. Canons for Wroclaw, a concerto I created for virtual instruments, was performed last December by the Chamber Wrchestra of Wroclaw ,Poland. All of this means that I have a few deeply felt ideas about Napster, the free software millions of people use to share their music collections over the Internet. Big media companies see Napster as theft because they can’t collect royalties when people use it. So they have asked the courts to kill it. As I write this , a settlement seems to be emerging. Napster will probably begin to charge for its services and pay royalties to at least some record companies. Whatever happens, the legal decisions surrounding Napster are important for resons that transcend the music business and extend to our basic concepts of what it means to be free in a democracy. I believe the anti-Napster forces have failed to foresee dangerous implications of their course of action. They don’t understand what I call the Law of the Exclude Digital Middle igital tools can be either open or closed but resist being anything in between .An open digital tool is one that can be used in unforeseen ways. A tool like e-mail ,meant to send text, might also---surprisingly ---be used to send music.A closed tool is one in which there are technical resteictions that prevent unforeseen uses. The advantage of open tools is that more people can create new things with them;consequently,they tend to be more innovative.Closed tools are usually created because it is thought they will be more profitable: An owner can control them well enough to enforce bill collection. Of course, the open software movement energetically
promotes the idea that innovation ends up generating more money than control does. 86．The Napster issue___ A.is one concerning copyright infringement of violation B.is a dispute bewteen music companies and the cout C.has been settled in favor of music lovers D.will result in a boom of sales for music companies 87．The designer of an open digital tool hardly knows___ A.the risks it may encunter B.the potential ways of its usage C.the number of its users D.the amounts of its net profit 88．People who use closed digital tools end up____ A.making huge profits B.creating new techniques C.paying for services D.facing legal punishment 89．It implied that owners of digital tools will make more profits by___ A.encouraging innovations B.proteching copyrights C.control costs D.charging customers 90．The attitude of the auther towards the anti-Napster action is ___ A.supportive B.ambiguous C.indifferent D.negative 2002FA*** 医学博士研究生入学外语考试――英语参考答案（部分） 1.B 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.D 6.B 7.C 8.C 9.B 10.C 11.C 12.D 13.D 14.C 15.B 16.A 17.C 18.B 19.B 20.A 21.D 22.D 23.C 24.C 25.C 26.A 27.D 28.A 29.C 30.B 31.B 32.C 33.A 34.C 35.D 36.C 37.C 38.C 39.D 40.D 41.B 42.D 43.D 44.B 45.C 46.D 47.A 48.B 49.A 50.B 51.B 52.C 53.D 54.A 55.C 56.C 57.C 58.C 59.A 60.A 61.A 62.D 63.D 64.B 65.A 66.D 67.D 68.A 69.C 70.C 71.B 72.A 73.A 74.A 75.A 76.B 77.C 78.B 79.C 80.D 81.C 82.B 83.D 84.D 85.D
86.A 87.B 88.C 89.A 90.